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Occupant Comfort

OCCUPANT COMFORT ZONE(S)
 
Comfort Zones. Because of high energy costs, the DPW&T Building Services Division has established temperature Comfort Zones for heating and cooling. Incooling sign the winter, the set point for heating is 69 degrees (the standard acceptable temperature range is between 68 to 74 degrees). In the summer, the set point is 76 degrees (the standard acceptable temperature range is between 75 to 78 degrees). However, for facilities that provide services to seniors, the year-round set point is 76 degrees.
 
heating signHeating and Cooling Seasons. The typical cooling season begins on April 15 and ends October 15 each year. The heating system is deferred as long as is practical after October 15 and is terminated as soon as possible prior to April 15. In addition to thermal comfort, the relative humidity, for most applications, should be between 40% and 70%, with a 65% threshold to help prevent the growth of mold. The relative humidity Comfort Zone should not be lower than about 30% (to prevent occupant discomforts such as dry eyes and throats, shrinking of wood flooring, and static electricity problems on carpet, and possible sick building syndrome symptoms) or higher than about 60% in the center of the room. The 60% level is intended to keep the relative humidity from exceeding 70% at surfaces, such as walls and floors.
 
Relative Humidity. The relative humidity at surfaces is typically higher than it is at the center of a room. When the relative humidity at surfaces is above 70%, mold growth can occur. To control microorganisms, it is best to keep relative humidity below 60% to control mold and 50% to control dust mites. The accuracy of the standard humidity range is 3/5th% to 3% (say 2%) over the established comfort zone. For libraries and archival materials, a stable temperature of no higher than 70 degrees and a relative humidity of between 30% and 60% is recommended.
 
LIGHTING STANDARDS
 
Because of increasing energy costs, Building Services has adopted the following lighting (illumination) standards after review of the recommendations provided by the Illuminating Engineering Society of North America. In 2005, a heavy duty light meter was purchased to assist building services personnel in periodically checking minimum lighting levels known as foot-candles (fc).   

 Type of Activity

IL luminance (fc)

Typical Applications

 

Source: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America

Figure 10.25

Application

Foot-candles (fc)

Building Exteriors

  Entrances (active)
  Entrances (inactive)
  Critical Areas

  

5
1
5

Building & Monuments

  Bright Surroundings, Light Surfaces
  Bright Surroundings, Dark Surfaces
  Dark Surroundings, Light Surfaces
  Dark Surroundings, Dark Surfaces

 

15
50
5
20 

Bulletin Boards & Signs

  Bright Surroundings, Light Surfaces
  Bright Surroundings, Dark Surfaces
  Dark Surroundings, Light Surfaces
  Dark Surroundings, Dark Surfaces
  Loading Docks

 

50
100
20
50
20

Parking Facilities

  Open, Low Activity
  Open, High Activity
  Covered, General Parking
  Covered Ramps
  Covered, Entrances

 

0.5
2
5
10
50 

Roadways
 


 

Storage Yards

  Active
  Inactive

 

20
 1

Walkways

  General
  Stairways

 

0.5
4.0

Source: Illuminating Engineering Society of North America

Figure 10.27